中国黄山风景名胜区
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浏览次数:   Huangshan UNESCO Global Geopark发布时间:2019-05-20 11:18:42

1. Geodiversity Value

The geodiversity is the foundation of biodiversity. The interlaced columnar peaks and deep valleys form the particular local climate, which influence the vertical distribution of plants and the multiplication and inhabitation of wildlife. The granite crust of weathering provides the important material basis for Huangshan pines which are the head of Five Wonders in Huangshan.

Huangshan is the natural museum of the granite landform. The varied geomorphologic shapes of Huangshan granite completely record the geomorphologic features of the granite development indifferent stages. The granite is concentrically distributed centering in Bright Summit spatially, which vividly specifies the geomorphologic rejuvenation of the granite development.

As one of the nine geomorphology geological relics, Huangshan Landform has been the typical representative of granite landform. In 2004, Huangshan joined in Global Geopark Network as the first batch.




2. Biodiversity Value

Lying at the convergence zone from subtropics to the temperate zone, Huangshan, possessing the bi-features of flora and fauna series in both subtropics and temperate zone, is the key area for biodiversity conservation.

During the quaternary climatic fluctuation,because of unique geographic location and complex landform, Huangshan became the shelter for flora and fauna, saving a large number of ancient valuable and rare species. As the migration channel for flora and fauna, Huangshan becomes the exchanging and blending site for cosmopolitan species. They are the species with the highest genetic diversity in Huangshan, which gives the conservation priority to these species (ESU).

There are extremely rich biodiversity and a variety of endemic species in the administrative area of Huangshan City. There are 456 vertebrates and more than 1800 higher plants (which account for 7% of the total number of Chinese flora and fauna).

In Mt. Huangshan, there are 1805 higher plants, among which 37 are national key protected animals including Emmenopterys henryi, Gingko biloba,Pseudotsuga sinensis, and Taxus spp. There are 323 vertebrates, among which 28 are national key protected plants including Neofelis nebulosa, Muntiacuscrinifrons, Capricornis milneedwardsii, Macaca thibetana, Lophura nycthemera, and Andrias davidianus.

As the only one non-mammalian vertebrate with the function of the ultrasonic communication globally, the unique Rana tormotus of Mt. Huangshan has the great potential research value.

Based on the rich biodiversity in Huangshan,the global 108 biodiversity distribution centers confirmed by IUCN include Huangshan (Jiangnan Hills and Zhemin Mountains, IUCN Conservation Office, 1990.Evaluation Criterion: diversity of plant species). 35 biodiversity conservation priority areas confirmed by China include Huangshan(Evaluation Criterion: TNC ecotope assessment system). In China Biodiversity Partnership Framework(CBPF), the irreplaceability index of the biodiversity in Huangshan remains the highest in Eastern China. Huangshan is the biodiversity hot spot which most deserves the conservation in Eastern China.



3. Cultural Diversity Value

Huangshan is the Chinese famous cultural mountain. It is said that in Huangshan, once called "Mt.Yishan"in an early ancient time, Emperor Huang, the cultural primogenitor of Chinese nation, was immortalized. Hence, Emperor Xuanzong (Li Longji by the name) in Tang Dynasty gave his imperial order in 747AD to rename it Mt. Huangshan implying Emperor Huang's mountains.

The cultural activities in Huangshan of thousands of years have reflected the different aesthetic experience between elegance and vulgarity, left lots of historical relics, induced colorful landscape literatures and bred the miracle of Chinese painting—Huangshan Painting School.


The assessment from the authority:

In 1990, Mt. Huangshan was added to the list of World Cultural and Natural Heritage by UNESCO as globally the 17th mixed-heritage site. The selection criteria:

l  Cultural Criterion II: to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design.

l  Natural Criterion III: to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance.

l  Natural Criterion IV: to contain the most important and significant natural habitats, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.

In 2009, China Comment affirmed that Huangshan is "a classical representative of Chinese landscape, an important symbol of Chinese nation and a brand and an icon of Chinese tourism".


The assessment from the social public:

In 1985, as the only featuring mountainous landscape, Mt. Huangshan was selected as one of "the top ten scenic areas in China" from over 600 candidates by China Tourism News,which was voted by the whole nation and overseas Chinese.

In 2010, Mt. Huangshan was selected as one of the first three in Top 10 Best Destinations in China by Ctrip.com and other tourism industry bodies. "Without seeing peculiar peaks and grotesque rocks of Mt. Huangshan, you could not understand the beauty of Chinese landscape painting. Without appreciating sea of clouds and pines of Mt. Huangshan, you could not experience the artistic conception of Chinese poetry." (Excerpts from Prize Announcement)



4. Landscape and Aesthetics Diversity Value

The resources in Mt. Huangshan are classified into the following categories of natural resources and cultural resources. Cultural resources are comprised of two large classes and nine classes and forty-seven small classes. There are a total of 1,019 tangible landscape resource units in this planning evaluation, including 688 natural resources that account for 67.5% of the total and 331 cultural resources that account for 32.5% of the total. Intangible cultural resources contain six smal lclasses.

Natural resources contain: a. 335 geological resources, account for 48.7% of the total; b. 108 water resources, account for 15.7% of the total; c. 211 biological resources, account for 30.7% of the total; d. 7 atmosphere resources, account for 1.0% of the total; e. 3 natural light landscape resources, account for 0.4% of the total; f. 24 others natural resources, account for 3.5% of the total.

Cultural resources contain: a. 55 historical and prehistorical buildings and structures, account for 16.6% of the total; b.276 inscriptions on precipices, account for 83.4% of the total.

In 2005, Mt. Huangshan was selected as one of "China's Ten Most Beautiful Mountains" by Chinese national Geography and 30 other media. Mt. Huangshan has a rich resource, integrated geology and a high value in science and environment, famous for its spectacularity and beauty in the natural and cultural appeal. Mt.Huangshan has become a representative of mountains in China. Mt. Huangshan, together with Yellow River, the Great Wall and Yangtze River, is admired as the symbol of Chinese nation.



5. Ecosystem Service Value

The supply service value

Mt. Huangshan is the watershed of Chinese two river systems — Yangtze River and Qiantang River in Anhui. Peaks stand in great numbers in Mt. Huangshan. Warm and moist airflow are blocked by gigantic mountains, and congeals to cloud and then to rain when it meets cold airflow. There are 180 precipitation days per year, with annual average precipitation of 2400mm. Creeks such as Peach Creek, Tangquan Creek,Xiaoyao Creek, Cross drift Creek, Kuzhu Creek and Pine Valley Creek, flew into Yangtze River through Taiping Lake and Qingyi River (275km). Creeks such as Fuqiu Creek, Yunmen Creek and Ruan Creek flew into Qiantang River through Fengle River and Xin'an River (373km).

Because of the wonderful ecological system and the strong measures for strictly preventing the environment pollution,Huangshan has provided the clean source protectively for Qingyi River and Xin'an River, and the fine water and soil for the aquaculture and the lake planting of Taiping Lake (Huangshan District of Huangshan City) and Fengle River (Huizhou District of Huangshan City).


The cultural service value

Mt. Huangshan was widely acclaimed in the heyday of literature and art ("the landscape style" in the middle of the 16th century) in Chinese history and famous as "the First Miracle Mountain in China". At present, Mt.Huangshan is renowned for its magnificent sceneries such as oddly-shaped pines in the granite peaks and grotesque rocks indistinct in sea of clouds. Mt. Huangshan owns eternal charm for tourists and artists from all directions. (The World Heritage Committee,1990)

In 1979, Comrade Deng Xiaoping inspected Mt.Huangshan and issued his famous "Huangshan Remarks", which made Mt.Huangshan "the cradleland of reform and opening-up for tourism in China". The tourist reception of Mt.Huangshan exceeded 1 million in 1999and 2 million in 2007. The tourists Mt. Huangshan received in 2012 has exceeded 3 million. More and more people from the world can experience the world-class beautiful natural scenery and the colorful multi-culture of Huangshan.



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